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    LNG features introduction

    LNG is Short for Liquefied Natural Gas. It is purified and cooling liquid by CH4 (methane) in the ultra-low temperature condition (162 ?, an atmospheric pressure). The volume of liquefied gas will greatly reduced after liquefied, about 0 ?, 1 atmospheric pressure when the gas volume of 1/600, that is to say after 1 m3 LNG gasification can be 600 cubic meters of natural gas.Colorless, tasteless, main composition is methane, there are few other impurities, is a very clean energy.
    Basic parameters of LNG
    LNG is component of methane (90%), ethane, nitrogen gas (0.5 1%) and a small amount of C3 ~ C5 alkanes of a cryogenic liquid.

    LNG transformed to another energy from natural gas.
    1) Main composition of LNG is methane, chemical name of CH4 and C2H6, there is a small amount of ethane propane C3H8 and nitrogen of N2 and other components.
    2) The critical temperature is 82.3 ?.
    3) The boiling point is 161.25 ?, the ignition temperature of 650 ?.
    4) Liquid density is 0.420 ~ 0.46 T/m3, the gas density of 0.68-0.75 kg/m3.
    5) Gas calorific value is 38 mj/m3, liquid heating value is 50 mj/kg.
    6) Explosion Scope: limit was 15%, the lower limit of 5%.
    7) Octane ASTM: 130.
    8) Colorless, tasteless, non-toxic and non-corrosive.
    9) The volume is 1/625 the same amount of gaseous natural gas volume.
    LNG is a kind of clean, efficient energy. Because imported LNG is useful for energy consumer to achieve energy supply diversifying, energy security, and export LNG helps producers develop gas resources effectively, increasing the foreign exchange income and promote the development of national economy, thus LNG trade is becoming a new focus in the global energy market.
    As a clean energy, natural gas is more and more popular, many countries are prefer LNG as a fuel, the ratio of natural gas in energy supply increase rapidly. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is growing about 12% every year, it become one of the most rapid growth in global energy industry. Global LNG producing and trading have become increasingly active recently, LNG has become scarce clean resources, it becomes a new hot spot of international oil and gas industry. In order to ensure the supply of energy diversity and improve the energy consumption structure, some large energy consumers pay more and more attention to the introduction of LNG, Japan, South Korea, the United States and Europe are setting LNG receiving station on a large scale. International oil companies are transforming the new driver of growth to LNG business, LNG will become the most popular energy commodities after oil.

    Basic knowledge of natural gas

    1. The gas

    Natural gas is a combustible gas that produced in oil and gas fields, and it is colorless, odorless. Its main composition is methane (CH4), about 80 ~ 99%, and ethane, propane, butane and pentane, and carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, total sulfur and moisture, etc. The boiling point is -161.52 ? in standard condition, the gas density is 640-750 – g/m3, it is 0.55 0.62 relative to the air density.

    2. The working principle of natural gas as a fuel

    CH4 + 2 2 h2o + CO2 + o2-38 mj/m3

    3. The main application of natural gas

    Natural gas is an important industrial raw material and fuel, its main application is as follows.
    1) Power plant, heat energy, heating, air conditioning and the main fuel of other industrial enterprises.
    2) the restaurant industry and civilian fuel;
    3) the main raw material of chemical industry, synthetic or refining a variety of industrial raw materials and semi-finished products;
    4) as clean fuel that can meet the requirements of environmental protection for motor vehicles, gasoline, diesel, ideal substitute, it is a new technology developed rapidly at home and abroad in recent years, which can be used in car, ship, train, or airplane.

    4. Six Advantages of LNG

    1) Volume is 625 times less than the gas with the same quality, so the cars and ships are available to transport LNG to the places without the natural gas.

    2) High efficiency storage, less occupying space and investment, 10m³storage is available to 10000 households used for one day.

    3) As the high-quality automobile fuel, compared with gasoline, LNG has the advantages of high octane, good antiknock performance, long engine life, low fuel costs and good environmental protection performance. HC? NOx? CO? SOx and Pb of gasoline vehicle exhaust can be correspondingly reduced by 72%? 39%?90% ?zero and zero through using LNG.

    4) High latent heat of vaporization, cold flow of the liquefaction can be recycled.

    5) Due to the LNG vaporization, its density is very low, and is only half of the air; for a slight leaking, LNG will immediately release to avoid the explosion.

    6) The composition is pure; complete combustion generated carbon dioxide and water. So it is good and clean fuel to protect the environment and reduce the pollution of the city.

    5.The main application of LNG

    1) As a clean fuel, it is used for urban residents after vaporization, with the characteristics of safe, convenient, fast and less pollution.

    2) As the automobile fuel, the engine can be only needed for appropriate changes to achieve safe and reliable operation, less pollution and low noise; especially for nowadays, due to the increasingly strict emission regulations, exhaust would obviously improve by using LNG as a fuel in the car. According to data reported, compared with compressed natural gas (CNG) and under the condition of the same running distance and time, for the medium and medium-heavy duty vehicles, fuel costs of LNG vehicles can be 20% lower, and weight can be two-thirds lighter; at the same time, the cost of fuel supply system device is lower at least 2/3. It can be proved that it is the most economic and effective method for transportation after the natural gas liquefied and then stocked.

    3) As a cold source, it is used in the production of quick-frozen foods, as well as the cryogenic crushing for plastic and rubber, etc.; it can also be used for water desalination and cable cooling, etc.

    4) As industrial fuel gas, it is used for glass cover factory, craft glass factory and other fields.

    6.The mode of transportation of LNG

    The mode of transportation of LNG are ships, trains and automobiles tanker, etc.In 500 ~ 800 km within a radius of economic transport, adopt the way of car tank lorry transport LNG is ideal.Tank car tanks using double-wall vacuum powder adiabatic, equipped with valve operation safety system and infusion hose, etc.Domestic cryogenic liquid tank vehicle manufacturing technology is mature, with tank lorry safety.Products used LNG cryogenic liquid storage tank storage, double-wall vacuum powder adiabatic liquid tank, LNG daily evaporation rate can be controlled within 0.46%, storage period for 4 ~ 7 days.

    7. LNG is the clean fuel for vehicles

    In all clean fuels, natural gas for its application technology is mature, reliable, economically feasible in many countries and are world experts as the most suitable alternative fuel cars. Vehicles using natural gas as power fuel, compared with gasoline to reduce its emissions of HC 72%, NOx reduction of 39%, CO reduction of 90%, SOx, Pb zero. Noise is reduced by 40%. Therefore, to promote the use of natural gas fuel, reduce air pollution and improve the environment will play a positive role in promoting.



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